To keep the crew and the computers alive you have to shield them from both gamma rays and pions. As far as the crew is concerned both reaction products come under the heading of "deadly radiation. Given an absorbing propellant or radiation shield of a specific density you can figure the thickness that will stop all the pions.
Spinal mount on an Azhanti High Lighting class frontier cruiser from RPG Traveller As a general rule, a space warship is basically a " weapons platform. Single weapons and multi-weapon turrets are mounted on " hardpoints " or "weapon stations.
One only hangs a heavy picture frame on a nail in a wall stud, not just the wall board.
For the same reason only mount a heavy turret on a hardpoint, not on a flimsy stretch of hull. Some hulls are about as strong as the skin on a beer can. Turrets pivot to allow aiming the weapon s. Homing missiles are often mounted in " vertical launch systems " or "missile cells", because they do not have to be aimed.
Fire and forget, they'll automatically find the target.
Naturally some people who are into hyper-optimization and min-maxing will quickly switch from mounting weapons on a ship to building the ship around a weapon. A monstrously huge weapon, with a fixed forward facing. Of course you probably have to turn the entire spacecraft in order to aim the weapon, but the ship is going to smite the target with the most bang for your buck.
It certainly will be the sort of ship that will blast the snot out of you if you are stupid enough to turn around and try running away. The ship will also have a similar outline as the weapon, probably long and skinny.
Popular spinal mount weapons are coil guns, rail guns, and particle beam weapons, since those weapons inflict more damage the longer the weapon is.
The weapon can be mounted on the ship's nose, along the ship's side "dorsally" or "ventrally", but RocketCat will rip your lips off if you use those termsor along the ship's spine. In extreme cases the weapon is the ship's spine, this is what the Traveller RPG calls a " spinal mount ".
A good example is the " Wave motion gun " that forms the spine of Space Battleship Yamato. And Matthew Marden pointed out to me that in the USS Vesuvius was virtually a spinal mount, with " dynamite guns " fixed in both traverse and elevation.
Isaac Kuo has some interesting observations on the placement of laser turrets: There's an interesting question of what the ideal number of turrets is. One thing that's counterintuitive is that the number of turrets has little effect on total firepower.
Your laser engine s can fire the beam down a central corridor, with mirrors to select a branch toward any of the laser turrets.An excited-state atom is an atom in which the total energy of the electrons can be lowered by transferring one or more electrons to different orbitals.
That is, in an excited-state atom not all electrons are in the lowest possible energy levels.
1, 1-trichloroethane; trichloroethate 1/f, one over "f" noise where "f" is frequency 1D, one dimensional 1T-1C, 1 transistor/1 capacitor 1T-2C, 1 transistor/2 capacitor. It depends on the atom. For example, the electron configuration of an atom of boron in theground state is In the excited state, it would be Write the ground state electron configuration for neutral Titanium and then write the electron configuration for an excited state of Titanium.
Titanium: 1s 2 2s 2 . Mar 11, · Each of the following electron configurations represents an atom in an excited state. Identify the element, and write its condensed ground-state electron configuration. (a) 1s22s22p63s13p1Status: Resolved. Interactions between metals and oxides are key factors to determine the performance of metal/oxide heterojunctions, particularly in nanotechnology, where the miniaturization of devices down to the nanoregime leads to an enormous increase in the density of interfaces.