Natural Instinct Themes and Colors LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in White Fang, which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. White Fang's Wild Northland is a harsh and merciless place, where every living being struggles to survive.
Natural selection The idea of the struggle for existence has been used in multiple disciplines. It became popular in the mid 19th century, through the work of Malthus, Darwin, Wallace, and others. The most popular use of the struggle for existence is in the explanation of the theory of natural selection by Charles Darwin.
For more technical information on how the struggle for existence is meshed with the theory of natural selection see the main article for natural selection. Historical development[ edit ] The concept of a struggle for existence goes back to antiquity: Heraclitus of Ephesus wrote of struggle being the father of everything, and Aristotle in his History of Animals observed that "There is enmity between such animals as dwell in the same localities or subsist on the same food.
If the means of subsistence run short, creatures of like kind will fight together. Anticipating Malthus, he proposed that a wise Providence made periodic Reductions in excessive numbers of animals, as with human population "to keep it within such bounds as may keep it from surcharging the World" so that "by these Prunings there may be a consistency in the Numbers of Mankind, with an eternal succession of individuals.
Plagues and Epidemical Diseases: He calculated that an elm seed would produce a tree which, after 10 years, produced 1, seeds.
If each were sown, the whole globe would be converted into trees in years. Similarly, "if we were to hatch every egg produced by hens for a space of 30 years, there would be a sufficient number of fowls to cover the whole surface of the earth.
For in old settled Countries, as England for instance, as soon as the Number of People is as great as can be supported by all the Tillage, Manufactures, Trade and Offices of the Country, the Over-plus must quit the Country, or they will perish by Poverty, Diseases, and want of Necessaries. Marriage too, is discouraged, many declining it, till they can see how they shall be able to maintain a Family.
Over the following century, this forecast was remarkably accurate. His paper was widely circulated, and had considerable influence: Malthus cited the period as "a rate in which all concurring testimonies agree.
There is, in short, no bound to the prolific nature of plants or animals, but what is made by their crowding and interfering with each other's means of subsistence.
Was the face of Earth vacant of other plants, it might be gradually sowed and overspread with one kind only, as, for instance, with fennel; and, were it empty of other inhabitants, it might in a few ages be replenished from one nation only, as, for instance, with Englishmen.
In the late 18th century, naturalists saw the struggle for existence as part of an ordered balance of nature, but they increasingly recognised the fierceness of struggle and the fossil record shook ideas of permanent harmony.
Carl Linnaeus saw an overall benign balance, but also showed calculations of the Earth quickly filling with one species if it reproduced unchecked,  and referred to "bellum omnium perpetuum in omnes, et horrenda laniena" a perpetual war of all against all, and horrible massacre.
In this view, Nature, instead of being cruel and oppressive, is highly generous and beneficent. Thomas Robert Malthus argues that a population will increase exponentially if unchecked, while resources will only increase arithmetically.
In An Essay on the Principle of PopulationThomas Robert Malthus argues that a population will increase exponentially if unchecked, while resources will only increase arithmetically.
Malthus knew that with limited resources on earth, there would be competition among people to exist and survive. He coined the phrase the Malthusian catastrophe to explain how there were positive checks in human populations like famine and disease that kept the population from rising too quickly.
In periods of high food availability the population increases, while in periods of food shortages, the population decreases. His friend Charles Lyell quoted this passage in the second volume of Principles of Geology: The first which establish themselves by chance in a particular spot, tend, by the mere occupancy of space, to exclude other species—the greater choke the smaller, the longest livers replace those which last for a shorter period, the more prolific gradually make themselves masters of the ground, which species multiplying more slowly would otherwise fill.
To explain adaptationLamarck proposed that species did not become extinct, but constantly transformed to suit a changing environment: Lyell believed in essentialism in which species were fixed so could not adapt to change, and became extinct.
Unhealthy plants are the first which are cut off by causes prejudicial to the species, being usually stifled by more vigorous individuals of their own kind.
If, therefore, the relative fecundity or hardiness of hybrids be in the least degree inferior, they cannot maintain their footing for many generations, even if they were ever produced beyond one generation in a wild state.
In the universal struggle for existence, the right of the strongest eventually prevails; and the strength and durability of a race depends mainly on its prolificness, in which hybrids are acknowledged to be deficient. Darwin[ edit ] In the late s, Charles Darwin began developing his ideas of "warring of the species" leading to natural selection.
Charles Darwin initially shared the belief that nature was perfect and harmonious: When the second volume of Lyell's Principles of Geology was delivered to the Beagle that November, Darwin accepted its argument that the "struggle for existence" disproved transmutation of species.
He was reminded of Malthusianism when his sisters sent him out pamphlets by Harriet Martineau. Darwin was spurred into intensive research and the inception of his theory to find the mechanism introducing species.
Unconventionally, he sought information from animal breeders. We ought to be far from wondering of changes in numbers of species, from small changes in nature of locality.
Even the energetic language of Malthus Decandolle does not convey the warring of the species as inference from Malthus.
Population is increase at geometrical ratio in far shorter time than 25 years — yet until the one sentence of Malthus no one clearly perceived the great check amongst men  That sentence is on page 6 of the first volume of Malthus' Essay, 6th edition:If you're looking for the best survival knife for your purposes, this guide has you covered with extensive reviews and a carefully crafted list of knives.
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The survival film is a film genre in which one or more characters make an effort at physical survival. It often overlaps with other film genres. It is a subgenre of the adventure film, along with swashbuckler films, war films, and safari films. Survival films are darker than most other adventure films which usually focus their storyline on a .
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Natural selection: Natural selection, process in which an organism adapts to its environment by means of selectively reproducing changes in its genotype. Herbert Spencer: Herbert Spencer, English sociologist and philosopher, an early advocate of the theory of evolution, who achieved an influential synthesis of knowledge, advocating the preeminence of the individual over society and of science over religion.
His magnum opus was The Synthetic Philosophy (), a.