Before Chinese characters were adopted and adapted by the Japanese, the Japanese had no known writing system with which to record their history. Chinese characters were known to the Japanese in earlier centuries, but the process of assimilation of these characters into their indigenous language system took place in the third century. This was due to the willingness of the Japanese to borrow aspects of the culture of continental civilisations, which was achieved mainly via adjacent countries such as the Korean kingdoms rather than directly from the Chinese mainland empires.
Menu History of the Juvenile Justice System A grasp of the current conflict surrounding the responsibility and direction of the juvenile justice system becomes more obtainable when one takes into consideration how the system has progressed since its inception.
The juvenile justice system was created in the late s to reform U. Since that time, a number of reforms - aimed at both protecting the "due process of law" rights of youth, and creating an aversion toward jail among the young - have made the juvenile justice system more comparable to the adult system, a shift from the United State's original intent.
The period, which formally spanned between andwas preceded by nearly a century of discontent.
During the Progressive Era, Americans saw the growth of the women's suffrage movement, the campaign against child labor, the fight for the eight-hour workday, and the uses of journalism and cartooning to expose "big business" corruption.
Prior to the Progressive Era, child offenders over the age of seven were imprisoned with adults. Such had been the model historically. But the actions of political and social reformers, as well as the research of psychologists in the 18th and 19th centuries, began a shift in society's views on juvenile delinquents.
Early reformers who were interested in rehabilitating rather than punishing children built the New York House of Refuge in The reformatory housed juveniles who earlier would have been placed in adult jails. Beginning inindividual states took note of the problem of youth incarceration and began establishing similar youth reform homes.
Such early changes to the justice system were made under a newfound conviction that society had a responsibility to recover the lives of its young offenders before they became absorbed in the criminal activity they were taking part in. The juvenile justice system exercised its authority within a "parens patriae" state as parent or guardian role.
The state assumed the responsibility of parenting the children until they began to exhibit positive changes, or became adults. Youth were no longer tried as adult offenders. Their cases were heard in a somewhat informal court designed for juveniles, often without the assistance of attorneys.
Extenuating evidence, outside of the legal facts surrounding the crime or delinquent behavior, was taken into consideration by the judge. Early reform houses were, in many ways, similar to orphanages. Indeed, many of the youth housed in the reformatories were orphans and homeless children.
Juvenile courts aimed to make their 'civil proceedings' unlike adult 'criminal trials. The right to trial by jury and the freedom against self-incrimination were guaranteed to citizens in 5th Article of the Bill of Rights ratified This Article, the 5th Amendment to the Constitution, states that "No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury…nor shall [a person] be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself.
The Amendment states, "No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
A decision by the Supreme Court affirmed the necessity of requiring juvenile courts to respect the due process of law rights of juveniles during their proceedings.
The ruling was the result of an evaluation of Arizona's decision to confine Gerald Francis Gault. Gault age 15 had been placed in detention for making an obscene call to a neighbor while under probation.
The Arizona juvenile court had decided to place him in the State Industrial School until he became an adult age 21 or was "discharged by due process of law.
The right to receive notice of charges The right to obtain legal counsel The right to "confrontation and cross-examination" The "privilege against self-incrimination" The right to receive a "transcript of the proceedings," and The right to "appellate review" The dissenting voice, Justice Potter Stewart, expressed concern that the court's decision would "convert a juvenile proceeding into a criminal prosecution.
The act was designed to encourage states to develop plans and programs that would work on a community level to discourage juvenile delinquency. The programs, once drafted and approved, would receive federal funding.Nov 08, · The major issue I intend to look at it is whether or not we should abolish the juvenile justice system.
First, we will look at the position of keeping the current system, why it needs to stay in place, and why in the long run it is the most beneficial to the juvenile.
Introduction to the Psychology of Criminal Behavior provides an overview of the intersection of psychology and the criminal justice system. The biopsychosocial factors that may influence criminal behavior are examined such as aggression, psychopathy, mental health disorders, and brain dysfunction.
Department of Criminal Justice The Department of Criminal Justice offers a curriculum that will provide students with a thorough understanding of the criminal justice system and its interrelationship with society.
THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM The Juvenile Justice System was a creation of the Progressive Era reformist. Prior to this time there was little consideration for children as needing or deserving different treatment than adults.
History of the Juvenile Justice System. He held to the historical intent of the juvenile justice system, which was not to prosecute and punish young offenders, but to "correct a condition," and meet society's "responsibilities to the child." The Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control Act - Trace and describe the historical development of common law to modern criminal law including the elements and classifications of crime.
(AJS) Identify and analyze current issues and trends in the criminal justice system.