Leadership — Past to Present In the 21st century there are a plethora of leadership theories and models, each with their own set of unique characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses. Six models will be compared to show each leadership models in the context of a leadership spectrum that reaches from purely social behavior on one extreme to purely situational context on the other.
The opening chapters present empirical arguments for the basic cosmological framework within which Ptolemy worked. Earthhe argued, is a stationary sphere at the centre of a vastly larger celestial sphere that revolves at a perfectly uniform rate around Earth, carrying with it the starsplanetsSunand Moon —thereby causing their daily risings and settings.
Through the course of a year the Sun slowly traces out a great circle, known as the eclipticagainst the rotation of the celestial sphere.
The fundamental assumption of the Almagest is that the apparently irregular movements of the heavenly bodies are in reality combinations of regular, uniform, circular motions.
How much of the Almagest is original is difficult to determine because almost all of the preceding technical astronomical literature is now lost.
Ptolemy credited Hipparchus mid-2nd century bce with essential elements of his solar theory, as well as parts of his lunar theory, while denying that Hipparchus constructed planetary models.
Ptolemy made only a few vague and disparaging remarks regarding theoretical work over the intervening three centuries, yet the study of the planets undoubtedly made great strides during that interval. Brahe pointed out that solar observations Ptolemy claimed to have made in are definitely not genuine, and there are strong arguments for doubting that Ptolemy independently observed the more than 1, stars listed in his star catalog.
What is not disputed, however, is the mastery of mathematical analysis that Ptolemy exhibited. Ptolemy was preeminently responsible for the geocentric cosmology that prevailed in the Islamic world and in medieval Europe.
In this work he proposed what is now called the Ptolemaic system —a unified system in which each heavenly body is attached to its own sphere and the set of spheres nested so that it extends without gaps from Earth to the celestial sphere.
Ptolemy taught later astronomers how to use quantitative observations with recorded dates to revise cosmological models. He believed that astrology is a legitimatethough inexact, science that describes the physical effects of the heavens on terrestrial life.
Ptolemy accepted the basic validity of the traditional astrological doctrines, but he revised the details to reconcile the practice with an Aristotelian conception of nature, matter, and change. Mathematician Ptolemy has a prominent place in the history of mathematics primarily because of the mathematical methods he applied to astronomical problems.
His contributions to trigonometry are especially important. He also applied fundamental theorems in spherical trigonometry apparently discovered half a century earlier by Menelaus of Alexandria to the solution of many basic astronomical problems. The extent to which Ptolemy subjected visual perception to empirical analysis is remarkable when contrasted with other Greek writers on optics.
For example, Hero of Alexandria mid-1st century ce asserted, purely for philosophical reasons, that an object and its mirror image must make equal angles to a mirror. In contrast, Ptolemy established this principle by measuring angles of incidence and reflection for planar and curved mirrors set upon a disk graduated in degrees.
By his own admission, Ptolemy did not attempt to collect and sift all the geographical data on which his maps were based. Instead, he based them on the maps and writings of Marinus of Tyre c.Nicholas Copernicus ( - ), mathematician and astronomer, established a model of the universe with the sun, rather than earth, at its center.
Practice of Management theories.
This could be answered by further elaboration on management principles in view of managers understanding. Horner, M. (), Leadership theory: past, present and future, Team Performance Management journal.
Volume 3, number 4, Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and tranceformingnlp.com can be an idea or a task, but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands of years specifically for the purpose of keeping an audience's attention.
Although people's attention is held by . New theory of time suggests that the past, present AND future co-exist in the universe A Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor of philosophy has presented a new theory of time. Instead they are themselves the product of complex interaction among observations, instruments (and -- as Duhem pointed out long ago -- the theories presupposed in them), 11 theories (models, assumptions, etc), observers (and their environments), and nature.
An Island View of Theory: Archaeological Thought in Hawaii, Past, Present, and Future This session will explore the various theoretical frameworks that have shaped and continue to shape archaeological thought in Hawaii.